EJM - Europäisches Journal für MinderheitenfragenAusgabe 1 / 2015
Rund ein Siebtel der europäischen Bevölkerung gehört zu den etwa 340 Minderheiten mit rund einem Drittel der 90 Europäischen Sprachen. Die Auflösungsprozesse Jugoslawiens erwiesen nachdrücklich, daß der Schutz dieser Minderheiten zu den Fragen gehört, die über Krieg oder Frieden entscheiden können. Seither stehen Minderheitenfragen wieder auf der Agenda der internationalen Staatengemeinschaft. Das peer-reviewte Europäische Journal für Minderheitenfragen (EJM) wurde 2008 gegründet. Die interdisziplinäre Fachzeitschrift diskutiert Fragen der Wahrung und Entwicklung ihrer sprachlich-kulturellen Existenz und leistet Identität und Beiträge zur politischen Entscheidungsfindungen.
The principle of nationalism by which the political and the national is to
be congruent can have a significant influence on the making of autonomy regimes.
Likewise, the devolution of competences over language and education allows for
the shaping of identities within such autonomy regimes. The result is an imperfect
circular relation in which language, society and political institutions mutually
and continuously shape each other: linguistic diversity influences the design of
autonomy arrangements and vice-versa. Territorial and non-territorial autonomy
have, however, different consequences. In this article the author reviews through a
comparative approach how matters of linguistic diversity – including minority language
education and language standardisation – are managed differently through
the various forms of territorial (legislative and administrative) and non-territorial
autonomy (national cultural autonomy and functional autonomy). To do so, the author
draws on concrete examples involving minority languages in Spain (territorial
legislative autonomy) and in Serbia (national cultural autonomy). Furthermore, the
potential consequences of territorial and non-territorial models will be explored
by imagining two counterfactual scenarios: a non-territorial arrangement in Catalonia
and a territorial one in Serbia.
The Irish language has three main spoken dialects and a single standardised
written form. The recommendations of An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, the official
standard, published in 1945, and the subsequent guide to Irish grammar and
spelling, Gramadach na Gaeilge agus Litriú na Gaeilge, published in 1958, were broadly
accepted by the Irish language community. In 2012, a revised standard (the question
of whether this is a “revised standard” or a “new standard” is disputed by
critics) was published and a process of consultation is in progress. The most recent
census of population in the Republic of Ireland (2011) shows a growing number
of Irish speakers. The number of Irish language medium schools located outside
the traditional Irish-speaking areas continues to increase. Legislation has raised
the status of the language nationally and internationally. This article discusses the
background to Irish language standardisation, the debate it generated and how
standardisation has facilitated a number of positive developments in the language
in recent years.
Against the background of current political developments in Romania,
two closely connected general problem areas of the social situation and conflicts
within this country will first of all be gone into in detail: that of minorities and
of the events of emigration, along with the latter’s repercussions and resulting
problems. In a second step, this problem area is then gone into in greater depth
by reaching somewhat further back in time using the examples of the question of
collective identity and of the resettlement process of the Germans from Romania.
The broad reaching effects of this entire process are also examined. Finally, it
remains to be stressed that the further development of the problem area of minorities
and migration within the European context appears to be of substantial
relevance for the modernization processes that are currently taking place in this
Southeastern European country.
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