In 2017, the anniversary of the Russian Revolution was commemorated across the world. It marked the first political implementation of Communism in November 1917 - of an ideology that was highly idealistic and ambitious to improve people’s lives on the one hand, while providing the justification for massive violence and oppressions on the other hand. In both respects, Communism had an immense impact on the 20th century and it still deeply affects both modern Russia and Germany. This collection of short essays is the result of an exchange between students of history and related subjects from Berlin and Moscow on the occasion of the anniversary in November 2017. It is a reflection on how Communism shaped our world – politically, culturally and intellectually – and how it is remembered and commemorated in contemporary Russia and Germany today.